Table 1

Summary statistics of household monthly expenditures and some demographic information in Vietnam

All populationTobacco-consuming householdsTobacco-non-consuming householdsDifferences
1. Expenditures per capita
Value (thousand VND)
 Total3411.263201.913682.69−480.77***
 Tobacco consumption19.2634.120.0034.12***
 Total healthcare expenditure175.78159.94196.32−36.39***
Proportion (%)
 Total100.00100.00100.000
 Tobacco consumption0.561.070.001.07
 Total healthcare expenditure5.155.005.330.33
2. Household characteristics
 Average household size3.714.013.310.71***
 Average age38.9936.7841.87−5.10***
 Average number of children1.101.210.940.27***
3. Survey characteristics
 Number of provinces636363
 Number of districts704694658
 Number of households939654383958
4. Other statistics
 NPL (thousand VND)997.50
  • ***p<0.001.

  • Source: Authors’ calculation using VHLSS 2018 and GSO-WB.

  • GSO-WB, General Statistics Office of Vietnam and the World Bank; NPL, national poverty line; VHLSS, Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey; VND, Vietnamese dong.