Table 3

Association between worsening in smoking habits during lockdown (starting or relapsing smoking or increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day) and selected individual variables (base model), conditions during lockdown and psychological variables: distribution at baseline (N), proportion of people worsening their smoking habits (%) and corresponding ORs* with 95% CIs

VariableNever and former smokers
N
People who started or relapsed smokingCurrent smokers
N
People who increased the number of cigarettes smoked per day
%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)
Total46030.7140036.3
Gender
 Male22390.8172432.81
 Female23640.60.71 (0.25 to 2.03)67740.1 1.40 (1.07 to 1.85)
Age
 55–7415070.6148232.21
 35–5418700.40.41 (0.10 to 1.74)58839.91.27 (0.90 to 1.78)
 18–3412261.42.25 (0.73 to 6.98)33135.91.17 (0.77 to 1.77)
Education
 Low6510.2126034.11
 Intermediate23420.97.13 (0.87 to 58.64)69136.81.03 (0.69 to 1.53)
 High16100.75.09 (0.59 to 44.04)45036.91.02 (0.67 to 1.56)
Living with children aged 0–14
 No33590.6193733.71
 Yes12431.12.73 (0.82 to 9.13)46441.61.33 (0.98 to 1.81)
Geographic area
 North21180.5164734.11
 Centre9151.42.79 (0.86 to 9.04)28739.31.28 (0.90 to 1.81)
 South and islands15710.71.30 (0.39 to 4.33)46737.61.15 (0.84 to 1.58)
Smoking status before lockdown
 Never smoker40530.61
 Former smoker5501.7 3.12 (1.17 to 8.34)
Cigarettes smoked per day before lockdown
 ≤539534.71
 6–1572339.81.29 (0.92 to 1.79)
 >1528229.80.85 (0.56 to 1.30)
Working condition during lockdown
 Regularly working7801.2120929.31
 Working from home12580.50.39 (0.12 to 1.30)39245.6 2.00 (1.29 to 3.11)
 Unemployed before lockdown17180.70.58 (0.14 to 2.40)47327.00.85 (0.54 to 1.36)
 Job lost8470.70.53 (0.16 to 1.78)32743.2 1.77 (1.12 to 2.80)
People per room
 ≤138010.61110935.81
 >18011.31.79 (0.60 to 5.38)29138.30.94 (0.65 to 1.37)
Decreased quality of life
 No16870.8146926.21
 Yes29160.70.97 (0.36 to 2.61)93241.4 2.05 (1.49 to 2.8)
Decreased amount of sleep
 No31870.5192529.51
 Yes14161.3 2.83 (1.06 to 7.57)47549.7 2.29 (1.71 to 3.07)
Increased anxiety
 No26390.4174829.81
 Yes19631.12.71 (0.99 to 7.39)65343.8 1.83 (1.38 to 2.43)
Increased depression
 No24520.5168828.01
 Yes21501.01.97 (0.79 to 4.93)71244.4 2.04 (1.54 to 2.71)
  • *ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated through unconditional multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for gender, age, education, living with children aged 0–14, geographic area, smoking status before lockdown (for the model on people who started or relapsed smoking) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (in the model on people who increased the number of cigarettes smoked per day). Estimates in bold are statistically significant at 0.05 level.