Table 2

Participant characteristics at baseline by e-cigarette sales restriction (ESR) policy categories among baseline e-cigarette users (18–21 years; N=435)

ESR policy category 1*ESR policy category 2†
All participantsWithout
With any
P value‡§With flavoured
With comprehensive ESRsP value‡§
Age0.504 0.032
 18 and 1977.2%61.1%38.7%23.2%15.5%
 20 and 2122.8%57.6%42.4%34.3%8.1%
Sexual orientation 0.029 0.150
 Other orientations**22.0%70.0%30.0%15.6%14.4%
Race and ethnicity 0.000 0.000
 Non-Hispanic white15.6%38.2%61.8%55.9%5.9%
 Non-Hispanic Asian18.2%53.2%46.8%12.7%34.2%
 Non-Hispanic other††17.0%50.0%50.0%25.7%24.3%
Education level0.2270.100
 ≤High school38.8%64.5%35.5%20.1%15.4%
 ≥Some college55.7%58.6%41.4%29.3%12.1%
Subjective financial status0.2520.248
 <Living comfortably‡‡48.5%64.5%36.5%25.6%16.4%
 Living comfortably44.8%57.9%42.1%25.6%10.9%
Current e-cigarette dependence0.9180.977
Current e-cigarette use frequency0.3320.317
 1–2 days35.6%60.0%40.0%29.0%11.0%
 3–9 days26.9%65.8%34.2%16.9%11.3%
 10–30 days37.5%57.1%42.9%28.3%15.2%
Current cigarette smoking0.1800.186
Continued e-cigarette use 0.018 0.005
  • *ESR policy category 1 has two groups: without ESRs and with any ESRs (including flavoured or comprehensive ESRs).

  • †ESR policy category 2 has three groups: without ESRs, with flavoured ESR and with comprehensive ESRs.

  • ‡Bolded text indicates statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • §Post-hoc analysis was conducted to examine within-group differences if between-group difference was significant.

  • ¶‘Other’ category for gender includes those who did not report or gender other than female or male.

  • **‘Other’ category for sexual orientation includes asexual, bisexual, gay, lesbian, pansexual, queer, questioning or unsure, and other identities.

  • ††‘Other’ category for race/ethnicity includes American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders.

  • ‡‡<Living comfortably category includes met needs with a little left, just meet basic expenses and do not meet basic expenses.