Table 3

Participant characteristics at baseline by e-cigarette sales restriction (ESR) policy categories among baseline non-e-cigarette users (18–21 years; N=1665)

ESR policy category 1*ESR policy category 2†
All participantsWithout
With any
P value‡§With flavoured
With comprehensive ESRsP value‡§
 18 and 1974.8%66.0%34.0%18.6%15.5%
 20 and 2125.2%65.6%34.5%22.7%11.7%
Sexual orientation0.0840.226
 Other orientations**77.7%69.6%30.4%17.5%12.9%
Race and ethnicity 0.000 0.000
 Non-Hispanic white11.5%39.6%60.4%53.7%6.8%
 Non-Hispanic Asian17.1%38.7%61.3%10.9%50.4%
 Non-Hispanic other††15.7%60.5%39.5%21.1%18.4%
Education level0.0980.098
 ≤High school39.3%68.4%31.6%17.1%14.0%
 ≥Some college54.8%63.4%36.6%21.8%14.8%
Subjective financial status 0.000 0.001
 <Living comfortably‡‡50.5%69.0%31.0%19.7%11.3%
 Living comfortably43.2%61.1%38.9%20.2%18.8%
Current cigarette smoking0.4900.735
  • *ESR policy category 1 has two groups: without ESRs and with any ESRs (including flavoured or comprehensive ESRs).

  • †ESR policy category 2 has three groups: without ESRs, with flavoured ESR and with comprehensive ESRs.

  • ‡Bolded text indicates statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • §Post-hoc analysis was conducted to examine within-group differences if between-group difference was significant.

  • ¶‘Other’ category for gender includes those who did not report or gender other than female or male.

  • **‘Other’ category for sexual orientation includes asexual, bisexual, gay, lesbian, pansexual, queer, questioning or unsure, and other identities.

  • ††‘Other’ category for race/ethnicity includes American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders.

  • ‡‡<Living comfortably category includes met needs with a little left, just meet basic expenses and do not meet basic expenses.