Table 4

Results of the difference-in-difference model

VariablesBivariateMultivariate
PriceSEP valuePriceSEP value
Before tax increase
 Illicit (I)1.1730.714
 Licit (L)1.2620.775
 Difference (I−L)0.0880.0450.050.060.1190.61
After tax increase
 Illicit2.842.371
 Licit2.6332.076
 Difference−0.2070.05<0.01−0.2950.051<0.01
 Difference-in-difference−0.2960.067<0.01−0.3550.124<0.01
  • SE, Standard Error.